A volcanic eruption occurs when molten rock in a volcano begins to break down. This process produces lighter magma that rises upwards through buoyancy. The lower the density, the easier it is for the magma to reach the surface and erupt. It contains dissolved gases and is called an effusive eruption. If the molten rock is viscous, it traps gasses and erupts with a violent break.
Dissolved gas and moderate viscosity
Volcanoes have many properties that contribute to their distinctive form. They are characterized by high levels of dissolved gas and moderate viscosity. They can create eruptive columns hundreds of meters in height. The eruption was named after the island of Stromboli. Vulcanoes have higher viscosity and a greater concentration of dissolved gas. The composition of the lava is one factor that helps determine which type it is.
Viscous and erupt more violently
The composition of the lava determines the type of eruption it will produce. Higher amounts of silica or water will make the lava more viscous and erupt more violently. The composition of basalt varies according to its silica content, and higher levels of both will lead to more explosive eruptions. In contrast, high-silica andesites are much more viscous than basalts and have greater dissolved gases.
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The chemistry of the magma
The chemistry of the magma plays an important role in volcanic eruptions. The composition of the magma determines its explosiveness and magnitude. The viscosity of lava determines the eruption dynamics and shape of the volcanic edifice. The more viscous the lava, the more likely it will be to erupt. So, the more viscous the lava, the higher its explosivity.
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